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Global 21 fourth quarter 2015

specifically mentioned. This is underpinned by a target for establishing sound policy support. The target on access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights is intended to work in tandem with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action. Water management The water goal looks not only at universal access to sufficient clean water, but also at pollution, sanitation, water efficiency and protection of water-based ecosystems. The aim is to improve water quality by 2030 through reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimising the release of hazardous chemicals and materials. International co-operation is sought to develop schemes such as water harvesting, desalination and wastewater treatment. There is also an aspiration to end open defecation. By 2020, water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes are hoped to be protected and restored. Energy The energy targets are among the most straightforward. Everyone is to get access to reliable and affordable energy by 2030 and renewable sources are to be substantially increased. By 2030, infrastructure is to be upgraded and technology expanded to enable the supply of modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing states and land-locked developing countries. Energy efficiency is also to be improved. Economy The economy targets look to grow per capita income; achieve higher levels of economic productivity; promote development-orientated policies; eradicate forced labour; protect employment rights; and increase Aid for Trade. There is also an aspiration to “achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value” by 2030. A reduction of Arena Development youth unemployment is also sought, as is expanded access to banking, insurance and other financial services. Infrastructure High-quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure is an aspiration for 2030, including regional and trans-border infrastructure, so that it supports development. The growth of sustainable and inclusive industrialisation is also a target, including the development of small-scale industrial enterprises. Scientific research is to be used to upgrade technological capacities. Domestic technology and IT infrastructure also get a mention. Inequality This goal deals primarily with economic parity. The bottom 40 per cent of income earners are to be targeted with the aim of growing their income faster than the national average. Inclusion is also a big theme, with the aim of empowering the “social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status”. Better regulation of financial markets is also an aim, along with fiscal and social protection policies. Developing countries should be more involved in “decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions”. Safe cities This target looks at safe, affordable housing, access to essential services and the eradication of slums. Safe transport systems are also prioritised, particularly public transport, which should be accessible for the elderly and those with disabilities. The safe cities targets even cover disasters, including water-related disasters, and include the aspiration to “significantly reduce the number of deaths” and economic losses caused by disasters. Accessible green and public spaces also get a mention. The sustainability element looks to improve air quality and encourage the use of local building materials in developing countries, which should also receive financial support to construct sustainable and resilient buildings. Milestones in education 900 In the Islamic world, children are educated in maktabs, which are attached to mosques and taught reading, writing, maths and Islamic law 387 BC Plato establishes his school, the Academy, in Greece. Subjects of study include astronomy, politics, biology, philosophy and mathematics 1088 The University of Bologna, world’s oldest university, is established in Bologna, Italy c1096 Oxford University is established in Oxford, UK 1530 Martin Luther publishes his ‘Sermon on Keeping Children in School’ after observing the large numbers of German children being sent to work 1633 Parliament of Scotland approves tax to enable public education 1959 United Nations General Assembly adopts The Declaration of the Rights of the Child, which asserts that ‘The child is entitled to receive education, which shall be free and compulsory’ 2000 The United Nations adopts the Millennium Development Goals, one of which is to achieve universal primary education 2015 Sustainable Development Goals are agreed and include the target of universal secondary education 1878 University College London is the first UK university to accept women 1870 In England, the Elementary Education Act calls for ‘sound and cheap’ elementary schools for children aged five to 13 www.global global four th quar ter 2015 -br ief ing.org l 31


Global 21 fourth quarter 2015
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